In an exclusive interview, on the contrary, professor Paisley Livingston, of the Johns Hopkins University, author of two books on Bergman ignores the current opinion that the Swedish director who centennial of the birth of needs this month, it was the existential, arguing that in the theater, Bergman ever staged parts of Sharia existentialism (Sartre, Camus, Genet). It would be better to say that the range of the work of Bergman up the experience of the family – the father, the aggressive parents, although loving. Bergman, in addition to that, it was a love life full of excitement: married five times and had nine children with different women. In scenes from a marriage (1973), for example, see Bergman filming the very cruelty in the marital relationship. In Saraband (2003), takes the reasons that ‘inspired’ scenes from a marriage to another consequences for the treatment of the terrible fruits of many relationships, being the most dangerous of them, the fact that the Forsaken or their children.
Bergman was influenced by ‘the obscure’ philosopher, psychologist Finnish Ino Kaila (1890-1958). Can you talk a little bit about this trend?
In my book, cinema, philosophy, Bergman: on film philosophy (2009), I wrote about the many links, quite specific and imperative, between what Kaila says in his book and what has been assimilated in the work of Bergman. Considered by many the masterpiece of Bergman, a personal account with the effect of Kaila, the time that in his book, The grand chalet des pistes makes it and comprehensive to explain, with clarity, nothing more and nothing less than that the concept of “personal”.
Kaila was in some way connected to the tradition of psychoanalysis Freud?
As to psychoanalysis, Kaila was anti-Freudian, because he believes that there are serious errors in the doctrine of psychoanalysis. Kaila believes in mental processes, the unconscious, like Freud, but felt that psychoanalysis was saying incorrect things about the nature of the unconscious. It was believed that what was true in Freud was not original and what is original is not true. For example, it was believed that in psychoanalytic theory, there was an excessive emphasis on the sexual.
What was the influence of Nietzsche on the bird?
It is very difficult to know which texts of Nietzsche Bergman read what specific ideas accepted, or at least use as an artist. Maybe he was thinking deeply about the death of God in Nietzsche and question the very foundations of the Christian faith. However, I think it’s safe to say that Bergman was convinced that there is a lot of emphasis on rationality, on the part of many philosophers in the concepts of what would be ‘humanity’, especially Kant. The idea of nature from the abundance of ‘peace’, can be seen in this sense, a good corrective against these concepts overly rational.
Bergman lived in the 20th century has seen two World Wars, Nazi atrocities and the crisis of Christianity. What aspects of this historical context may have influenced your work?
Bergman teamed up with National Socialism during his youth, and even participated in a youth camp in Germany. Then I felt disgust, so much of this episode of his life, as the revelation of the cooperation of Sweden with Nazi Germany, despite maintaining the official website of life. The direction of Bergman, throughout his life, in denouncing all forms of oppression, reflected in the strong reaction against the Nazi and the Holocaust. As the crisis of a Christian, the subject of Bergman ‘pictures, and the period of the agnostic or even an atheist, certainly reflects no aversion to accept the dogmas of the Christian religion is institutional. There is great talk in the shouts threatening in the priest representing the Christian founders of the prefaces every sentence with the conditional ‘if’ saying ‘if there is a god’, ‘if this or that’…
In the work of Bergman, there are many allusions to the New Testament. We can say that there is a kind of mania of Bergman in the interpretation of the legacy of Christ, which would enhance the project canceled from the filming of the life of Jesus?
Bergman paid for a film script about the last days of Jesus, but the project was given to another director. In a brief note at the end of the scenario, Bergman denied the existence of any treaties supernatural about Jesus. However, he sees that Christ is the transfer of profound moral message, one way or another, have had a significant impact on the human. In the script, it is clear that when the Roman commander (called Rufus), who is in charge of solid, has a sudden conversion. I’ve overwhelmed with guilt, and continue by repeating part of what I heard Jesus say: “Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do.” This part of the scenario certainly no basis in the New Testament, and then reveals a personal interpretation of Bergman. What happens with Rufus is that for some reason, he sympathizes with Christ as a victim. The key to understanding is the concept of imitatio Christi. At this point I see a sign with the spectacle of the burning of witches in the sixth seal. In this and in many other cases, Bergman was on the line with those who align themselves with the victims not with the tyrants. This love is not sexual, or taken care of by the victim (Caritas), the Bergman, the decisive contribution of Christian ethics.
What is the purpose of the themes so dark in the work of Bergman, such as murder or suicide or madness, depression and rape, for example?
Here we are faced with the ‘paradox of negative affect’, that is, we want to see the film (and others) that cause the feelings that usually don’t want to trade? That’s what st. Augustine called insanitas miserabilis. Are we really crazy or we’ve lost the reason for wanting to see the misery of the human condition displayed on the screen? To resolve this contradiction, we talk about “compensations” that come as part of this package is: learning (from a safe distance) on the negative moments of life; the satisfaction of curiosity, relief of boredom; fun; and also admiring the art. As to the special attention of the Bergman in this topics, dark, let’s say that there are many reasons not to be from the perspective of the especially optimistic or “angelic” about the human condition or the social-historical. This goes back to the consciousness of descalabros 2. World War, the doubts terrifying resulting from the Cold War.
In three of the photos (through the mirror, the light of the winter pictures), the problem of human communication goes along with the delicate problem of faith. This inability to communicate with himself and with others and with God was the great personal drama of the bird?
This is a fascinating issue. Bergman seems to compare the world in which they live with a world where God’s goodness is omnipresent, judge, and knows everything about. In the latter world, we are never alone, because he knows the United States for a long time. Even if you don’t know how to teach us, there is hope. But if not there is a God in our real world, where we are often alone and powerless, we should strive to have some contact with other people by means of perfect communication. Try to find the power that dwells in US and that can be felt in human relations. Here we find the theme of bergmaniano “God Is Love”. On the other hand, the interaction of misinformation and manipulation in opposition to the desire to connect, care, knowledge of others, arises in the world where God doesn’t promise anything more, nor does it guarantee more of this trend and knowledge.
*Felipe Cherubin is a journalist and philosopher, co-author of ‘what is intelligence?’ (Editora Lumen Juris), the work of Xavier Zubiri and “the author of the book “Man of two cities’ (Amazon)